Chance, Providence and Necessity
lectures by Rudolf Steiner
Are we ruled by chance?
What is providence? Are we entirely compelled by circumstances
beyond our control?
Rudolf Steiner casts a new
light upon these and other questions central to human life.
Connecting the inquiry
into necessity and chance with the problem of subjectivity and
objectivity, Steiner explains how subjective experience develops
through time into objective reality. "What was once a subjective
experience resurfaces as a characteristic objective element . . .
The subjective invariably becomes objective."
His discussion of chance,
necessity, and the influence of providence or grace on human life
culminates in insights into death and the spiritual significance of
Spock (8 lectures, Dornach 23 Aug to 6 Sept 1915, GA183)
Anthroposophic Press; Rudolf Steiner Press
ISBN: 0 88010 262 4
Necessity and Freedom
Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) called his spiritual philosophy
'anthroposophy', which he defined as 'the consciousness of one's
humanity', and the disciplined methods of studying this he termed
‘spiritual science’. As a highly developed clairvoyant and spiritual initiate, he spoke from
his direct cognition of the spiritual world. However, he did not see
his work as religious or sectarian, but rather sought to found a
universal 'science of the spirit'.
many published works (written books and lectures) - which include
his research into the spiritual nature of the human being, the
evolution of the world and humanity, and methods of personal
development - invite readers to develop their own spiritual
faculties. He also provided indications for the renewal of many
human activities, including education - both general and special -
agriculture, medicine, economics, architecture, science, philosophy,
religion and the arts. He wrote some 30 books and delivered over
6000 lectures across Europe, and in 1924 founded the General
Anthroposophical Society which today has branches throughout the